• Maximillah Bitutu Muro School of Public Health and Applied Human Sciences, Department of Community Health and Epidemiology: Kenyatta University
  • Eunice Njogu, Dr. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics: Kenyatta University
  • George Orinda, Dr. Department of Biochemical and Biotechnology:Kenyatta University


Air Pollution, Respiratory Infections, Risk Factors


Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the caregivers’ level of knowledge on indoor air pollution and risk of ARIs among 393 children below five years who live at Makadara Sub-County, Nairobi City County.

Methodology: Descriptive, cross-sectional study design was employed in this study. Semi-Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the caregivers of children suffering from ARIs. The questionnaires contained both closed and open-ended questions, which helped participants to provide explanations about the infection, and the perceived risk factors. Closed ended questions were utilized to gather data such as income levels, age ranges, and religion. Quantitative data was cleaned, coded and analysed using the SSPS version 22. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the caregivers’ socio-economic and demographic characteristics, knowledge and practices. Chi-square and ordered logistic regression was used to determine relationships and associations between the dependent variable (ARIs) and independent variables (socio-economic and demographic factors, knowledge level, and IAP).

Findings:The findings of the study will be used in the improvement of the caregivers’ level of knowledge on IAP and the risk of ARIs among children below five years. There was significant statistical differences between ARIs among children below five years and cigarette smoke exposure (P=0.005), use of charcoal in cooking (P=0.002), room occupancy P=0.013), lack of ventilation (P=0.001). The mean for particulate matter in the households was 50.1556 while the S.D for those who use charcoal was 13.372, kerosene, 16.860 and gas was 10.388. The mean knowledge level was 5.39, 95% CI; 5.07-5.72. Therefore, a mean of 5.39 out of 14 represent lower knowledge level on IAP and the risk of ARIs. There was significant statistical difference between availability of windows in the house and caregivers’ level of  knowledge on risk factors of IAP,  χ2 (2) = 11.09, P= 0.004.  

Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy:The study recommended that there is need to ensure implementation and compliance of the existing government policies on environmental pollution especially on indoor air pollution that can lead to reduction of risk factors of acute respiratory infections. This can be achieved through regular awareness creation through trainings and counselling of caregivers on the sources of indoor air pollution and risk factors associated with acute respiratory infections among  children below five years.


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