Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing 2024-01-25T11:28:09+03:00 Journal Admin Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Health Medicine and Nursing( JHMN) is a peer reviewed journal published by IPRJB.Published both online and printed version the scope of the journal include physical and mental health, diet exercises ,science on health issues ,public health and safety issues ,mechanism in medicine technology and manufacturing of medicine ,diagnosis surgery , health care nursing practices ,nurse training and education ,nursing ethics etc.JHMN is one of the best journal accredited for vital insight information.</p> Burden and Severity of Injuries at the Emergency Department of a Tertiary Hospital in Botswana- Princess Marina Hospital 2024-01-17T16:11:58+03:00 Boiki Lobatse Megan Cox Mpapho Motsumi <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Injuries constitute a leading and growing cause of emergency department (ED) visits in sub-Saharan Africa. Characteristics of ED injury patients have been well-described in many parts of the world; however, data remain scarce throughout Africa, Botswana included. We aimed to describe in detail injury-related ED visits at an urban public referral hospital in Botswana.</p> <p><a name="_Toc10724970"></a><strong>Method</strong><strong>ology</strong><strong>:</strong> We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients who presented to Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, over a period of 4 randomly selected consecutive months. Demographic data, injury mechanism, type, severity and ED disposition were abstracted from the medical record into a Microsoft Access database designed for this study. Study variables were analyzed with summary statistics&nbsp; for frequencies, percentages, means, medians and relationships using SPSS. Injury severity was calculated for each patient using the modified Kampala Trauma Score.</p> <p><a name="_Toc10724971"></a><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> &nbsp;6715 ED visits occurred during the study period, and 1709 (25.5%) were injury related. Of these, 63.9% were male, 24.7% &lt;14 years old, 6.7% age 14-19, 49.1% 20-40, and 19.5% &gt;40. 35.9% were due to falls, 23.6% assault and 18.8% road traffic crashes. 40.5% isolated soft tissue injuries, 34.7% isolated extremity injuries, 9.4% multiple injuries and 5.3% head and neck injuries. Kampala Trauma Score II (KTS) was available for 76% of patients. 1.7% scored ≤6, 5.9% 7-8, and 92.4% 9-10. For patients with KTS ≤6, 18% died in the ED, 82% were admitted and 0% discharged home. For KTS 7-8, 0% died, 93.5% were admitted, 6.5% were discharged home.&nbsp; For KTS II 9-10, 0% died, 26% were admitted, 74% were discharged home.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy</strong><strong>:</strong> This study is among the first in Botswana to assess the burden of injuries using a validated injury severity scoring tool. Based on the study findings and applicability of the KTS II in our setting, we recommend that PMH ED incorporates and promotes a severity scoring system to help in planning and resource allocation. PMH ED receives many low acuity injuries therefore improving the availability of basic resources in local clinics may reduce overcrowding. Future studies should aim to involve multiple centers to get a true representation of injury burden in Botswana.</p> 2024-01-17T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Boiki Lobatse, Megan Cox, Mpapho J Motsumi Doctor Patient Type of Language Used and Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Kibera Informal Settlement in Nairobi County, Kenya 2024-01-06T15:42:44+03:00 Beatrice Koech Geoffrey Sikolia Nancy Macharia <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To explore the type of language used on tuberculosis treatment adherence in an informal settlement in Nairobi County, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This was by a descriptive qualitative research design. The sample size was 67 and comprised 10 healthcare workers and 57 TB patients. Purposive sampling technique was used to sample the participants. The study conducted 37 unstructured in-depth interviews and 3 focus group discussions. Data analysis was conducted by first translating the data, then transcribing the verbatim of the in-depth unstructured interviews and focus group discussions. The transcribed data was later analyzed using thematic analysis. Data was presented using tables, bar charts and pie charts.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings of the study indicated that majority of the tuberculosis patients found that the type of language used by the healthcare workers when communicating with them determined whether they would adhere to treatment or not. If the language used was not well understood by the patient or if the healthcare worker used complex language, then the patient was not likely to adhere to treatment. The findings further indicated that more than half of the patients were fluent in Swahili language while the remaining patients only had basic knowledge of the language. Sixty percent that is 34 of the participants were fluent in Swahili language whereas thirty- eight percent that is 22 patients had basic knowledge of the language, and one did not understand the language and opted to communicate with the help of an interpreter. Seventy percent that is 40 of the patients indicated that when the healthcare workers communicated with them in simple language they were more likely to adhere to TB treatment. Findings from the healthcare workers indicated that Swahili was the preferred language used by both the healthcare workers and the tuberculosis patients. If a patient did not understand Swahili language, the healthcare workers would look for an interpreter who would then translate to the patient the required information. The use of complex medical language was only used when the healthcare workers were communicating amongst themselves.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory and Practice and Policy:</strong> The constructs of the theories informed the study in terms of treatment adherence by emphasizing the benefits of seeking healthcare early. On practice, healthcare workers needed to be aware of type of language used when interacting with their patients as they are likely to affect their patients’ adherence to treatment. Based on these findings, policymakers should ensure that all healthcare workers should use simple language that is, the use of plain common words to make it easier for the patients to understand. In addition, any health messages, appointment cards or any other TB information whether spoken or written meant for the patients, should be designed in a language that is simple for the patient to comprehend.</p> 2024-01-06T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Beatrice A. Koech , Dr. Geoffrey Serede Sikolia, Dr. Nancy Macharia Bacteriological Contamination Level of Foods and Water Sold With Escherichia Coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus Aureus, Coliforms and Vibrio Cholera in Food Establishments in Nairobi City Kenya 2024-01-25T11:28:09+03:00 Peter Kinyua Michael Gicheru Judy Mugo Nduhiu Gitahi <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>Food borne illnesses are major health burden leading to high morbidity and mortality. It is a growing public health concerns worldwide resulting from food and water contaminated by pathogenic microorganism, toxins or chemical hazards. It is estimated that 10 to 20% of food borne illness are contracted from food establishments. The main aim was to determine bacteriological contamination levels of foods and water sold with <em>Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms </em>and <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> in food establishments in Embakasi South Nairobi City County Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study design was descriptive analytical design. The Samples were collected in selected food establishments (Cafeteria, Hotels, Restaurants and food Kiosks) in Embakasi South Sub county Nairobi City County. The study collected 274 samples of food and water randomly sampled and collected using sterile food bags and water bottles within selected establishments and transported to the laboratory in cool boxes packed with ice packs. The samples were analyzed within 6 hours after collection. Microbiological analysis of food and water were borrowed from WHO and bacteriological analytical manual of foods to identify and isolate coliforms, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Vibrio cholera</em>, <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Salmonella spp.</em></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was found that some foods and water sold and consumed in the selected food establishments was contaminated with food borne microorganisms. <em>Escherichia coli </em>isolated in 137 food samples were at 24.1%, <em>Vibrio cholera at </em>23.4%, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>at 32.8%, and <em>Salmonella spp</em> at 4.4%. Total coliforms detected in 137 samples of water were at 43.8% where 32.8% of them were <em>Escherichia coli.</em></p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> The study concluded there was high level of bacterial contamination of foods and water consumed in selected foods establishments. Nairobi City County health officers should enhance regular sampling of foods and water for microbial quality, health education on sources of food contamination at food eateries and establishments to prevent food and water contamination which later lead to food borne illness outbreak.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-01-25T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Peter Muriithi Kinyua , Prof. Michael Muita Gicheru, Dr. Judy Mugo, Dr. Nduhiu Gitahi Growth Monitoring and Promotion Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Under 2 Year Children in Decha District, Southwest Ethiopia 2023 2024-01-11T10:07:34+03:00 Gano Geremew Abel Girma Emebet Adugna <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Growth Monitoring and Promotion (GMP)&nbsp; services is the preventive and promotive activity that uses growth monitoring, measuring, and interpreting growth, to facilitate communication&nbsp; and interaction with the caregiver to promote child growth. This study aimed to assess GMP service utilization and associated factor among children less than two years in Decha district, Southwest Ethiopia 2023.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We conducted Community-based cross-sectional study design to assess GMP service utilization and associated factor among children less than two years in Decha district, Southwest Ethiopia. The multistage sampling technique was employed for the study. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the presence of statistically significant association GMP service utilization and independent variable at p_value &lt;0.5 and adjusted odd ratio (AOR) value with 95% confidence interval (CI).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study revealed that 47% [95% CI, 42.74%, 51.26%] of the children utilized GMP services. Availability of growth monitoring service in the nearest health facility [AOR 5.829; 95% CI, 2.588-13.129], Mother or caregivers who visited antenatal care service [AOR 6.449 ; 95% CI, 2.078-20.019], mother or care givers who delivered in Health facility&nbsp;&nbsp; [ AOR 3.417&nbsp; 95%&nbsp; CI; 1.162-10.053], favorable mother or caregivers attitude toward GMPservice [AOR 2.438 95%&nbsp; CI;&nbsp; 1.400-4.247] and mother or caregivers who have good knowledge toward GMP service [AOR 3.015; 95%CI, 1.729-5.259] were significantly associated with utilization of GMP services.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> &nbsp;We found that over all GMP services utilization was low in the study are a compared with NN target (80%). Utilization of GMP services was signicantly associated with availability of growth monitoring service, antenatal care service, place of delivery, Caregivers attitude and knowledge toward GMP service. designing intervention; Increasing caregivers knowledge and increasing antenatal care coverage and facility delivery and availing services routinely in all health facilities is needed to improve utilization of GMP service.&nbsp;</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gano Geremew , Abel Girma , Emebet Adugna