Health Benefits of Micronutrients (Vitamins and Minerals) and their Associated Deficiency Diseases: A Systematic Review

Authors

  • Awuchi Godswill Godswill Kampala International University
  • Igwe Victory Somtochukwu Federal University of Technology Owerri
  • Amagwula O Ikechukwu Federal University of Technology Owerri
  • Echeta Chinelo Kate Ministry of Health, Imo State, Nigeria

Abstract

The research focused on the benefits of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and their associated deficiency diseases and health complications. Micronutrients are essential elements required by human and other organisms in varying quantities throughout life to coordinate a range of physiological functions for health maintenance. For human nutrition, micronutrients are required in amounts generally below 100 milligrams per day, while macronutrients are required in gram amounts daily. Vitamins and minerals are essential micronutrients. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in humans, either at all or may be in insufficient amounts, and therefore must be obtained by the dietVitamin C can be synthesized by some organisms but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. In humans there are 13 vitamins: 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C) and 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K). Vitamins A and D can amass in the body, which may result in dangerous hypervitaminosis. Anti-vitamins inhibit the actions or absorption of vitamins; avidin inhibits biotin absorption, although it is deactivated by cooking; Pyrithiamine inhibits enzymes that use vitamin B1. The four key structural elements in human body (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen) by weight, are often not included in the lists of major nutrient minerals (nitrogen is a "mineral" for plants, as it is often included in fertilizers). These four key elements compose around 96% of the weight of human body, and the major minerals (macrominerals) and minor minerals (trace elements) compose the remaining percent. The five major minerals in the the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium (macrominerals or macroelements). The trace elements with specific biochemical function in human body are iodine, sulfur, zinc, iron, chlorine, cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and selenium. Calcium makes up 920 to 1200 g of body weight (about 1.5% of body weight) of an adult, with 99% of it contained in the bones and teeth. Phosphorus occurs in amounts of around 2/3 of calcium, and makes up approximately 1% of an individual's body weight. The other macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, chlorine, and sulfur) make up only around 0.85% of the body weight

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Awuchi Godswill Godswill, Kampala International University

Department of Physical Sciences, Kampala International University, Kampala, Uganda

Igwe Victory Somtochukwu, Federal University of Technology Owerri

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Amagwula O Ikechukwu, Federal University of Technology Owerri

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Echeta Chinelo Kate, Ministry of Health, Imo State, Nigeria

Ministry of Health, Imo State, Nigeria

References

American Academy of Family Physicians (2019). "Vitamins & minerals: How to get what you need". The American Academy of Family Physicians. 2019.
Awuchi C. G.; Udeogu, E. (2016). Effect of Processing On Hemagglutinin Activity of Lectin Extracts from Selected Cereals and Legumes. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 2 (12); 24 – 59. ISSN: 2488-9849.
Awuchi Chinaza Godswill; Ikechukwu O. Amagwula; Igwe Somtochukwu Victory; Allan Isiaga Gonzaga (2018). Effects of Repeated Deep Frying on Refractive Index and Peroxide Value of Selected Vegetable Oils. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 4 (4); 106 – 119. ISSN: 2488-9849.
Awuchi, C. G. (2017). Sugar Alcohols: Chemistry, Production, Health Concerns and Nutritional Importance of Mannitol, Sorbitol, Xylitol, and Erythritol. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 3 (2); 31 – 66. ISSN: 2488-9849.
Awuchi, C. G.; Igwe, V. S.; and Echeta, C. K. (2019). The Functional Properties of Foods and Flours. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5 (11); 139 – 160. ISSN: 2488-9849.
Awuchi, Chinaza Godswill (2019a). Medicinal Plants: the Medical, Food, and Nutritional Biochemistry and Uses. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5 (11); 220 – 241. ISSN: 2488-9849.
Awuchi, Chinaza Godswill and Awuchi, Chibueze Gospel (2019a). Physiological Effects of Plastic Wastes on the Endocrine System (Bisphenol A, Phthalates, Bisphenol S, PBDEs, TBBPA). International Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2019, pp. 11-29. http://www.aascit.org/journal/archive?journalId=809
Awuchi, Chinaza Godswill and Awuchi, Chibueze Gospel (2019b). Impacts of Plastic Pollution on the Sustainability of Seafood Value Chain and Human Health. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5 (11); 46 – 138. ISSN: 2488-9849.
Awuchi, Chinaza Godswill and Echeta, Kate Chinelo (2019). Current Developments in Sugar Alcohols: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health Concerns of Sorbitol, Xylitol, Glycerol, Arabitol, Inositol, Maltitol, and Lactitol. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5 (11); 1 – 33. ISSN: 2488-9849.
Bender DA (2003). Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80388-5.
Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; and Heber, David (2013). Handbook of Nutrition and Food (3rd ed.). CRC Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-4665-0572-8.
Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; and Heber, David (2016). Handbook of Nutrition and Food, Third Edition. CRC Press. pp. 211–224. ISBN 978-1-4665-0572-8.
Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; and Heber, David (2016). Handbook of Nutrition and Food. CRC Press. pp. 211–26. ISBN 978-1-4665-0572-8.
Biley RL, Fulgoni VL, Keast DR, Dwyer JT (2012). "Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use". J Acad Nutr Diet. 112 (5): 657–663.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2012.01.026.
Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, LL Gluud, Simonetti GR, and Gluud C (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA. 297 (8): 842–857. doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.842.
Blancquaert, D; De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; and Van Der Straeten, D (2017). "Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants". Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. 1390 (1): 59–73. doi:10.1111/nyas.13274.
Boy E, Mannar V, Pandav C, de Benoist B, Viteri F, Fontaine O, and Hotz C (2009). "Achievements, challenges, and promising new approaches in vitamin and mineral deficiency control". Nutrition Reviews. 67 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1): S24–S30. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00155.x.
CDC (2017). "Vitamin K Shot – the Essential in Preventing Serious Bleeding in the Newborns". www.cdc.gov. 2017.
Chinaza Godswill, Awuchi; Clifford I. Owuamanam; Chika C. Ogueke; Victory S. Igwe (2019). Evaluation of Patulin Levels and impacts on the Physical Characteristics of Grains. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5 (4); 10 – 25. ISSN: 2488-9849.
Combs GF (2007). The Vitamins. Elsevier. ISBN 9780080561301.
Corvallis, OR (2016). "Minerals". Micronutrient Information Center, the Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University.
Corvallis, OR (2018). "Minerals". Corvallis, OR: Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2018.
Daumann, L. J. (2019). "Essential and Ubiquitous: Emergence of Lanthanide Metallobiochemistry". Angewandte Chemie Int’l Edition. doi:10.1002/anie.201904090.
EFSA (2006). "Tolerable upper intake levels for the vitamins and minerals". Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition & Allergies, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 1 February 2006.
EFSA (2017). "Overview on Dietary Reference Values for the EU population as derived by the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies". 2017.
European Food Safety Authority (2006). Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals, European Food Safety Authority, 2006
European Food Safety Authority (2014). "Scientific Opinion on the Dietary Reference Values for chromium". The European Food Safety Authority. 18th September 2014.
European Food Safety Authority (2017). "Overview on the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for the European Union population as derived by the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition & Allergies (NDA)". European Food Safety Authority. 1 September 2017.
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals – the Biotin (2017). Office of Dietary Supplements, the US National Institutes of Health. 8 December 2017.
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals – the Folate (2015). National Institutes of Health. The US National Institutes of Health.
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals – the Niacin (2019). Office of Dietary Supplements, the US National Institutes of Health.
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals – the Pantothenic acid (2018). Office of Dietary Supplements, the US National Institutes of Health. 20 August 2018.
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals – the Vitamin B6 (2018). Office of Dietary Supplements, the US National Institutes of Health.
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals – the Vitamin C (2019). Office of Dietary Supplements, the US National Institutes of Health. 2016.
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals (2018). Office of Dietary Supplements, the US National Institutes of Health. 20 August 2018.
FDA (2009a). Legislation. Fda.gov (2009).
FDA (2009b). "Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)". FDA. 20 August 2009.
Federico, M. L. and Schmidt, AM (2016). "Modern breeding & biotechnological approaches to enhance the carotenoid accumulation in seeds". In: the Carotenoids in Nature. Subcellular Biochemistry. 79. pp. 345–58. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-39126-7_13.
Food Fortification Initiative (2017). "Why fortify?". Food Fortification Initiative. 2017.
Fortmann SP, Burda BU, Senger CA, Lin JS, Whitlock EP (2013). "Vitamin and mineral supplements in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: An updated systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force". Annals of Internal Medicine. 159 (12): 824–834. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-12-201312170-00729.
Fukuwatari T and Shibata K (2008). "Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women". Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 54 (3): 223–9. doi:10.3177/jnsv.54.223.
Gadd, MG (2017). "The Geomycology of Elemental Cycling & Transformations in the Environment". Microbiology Spectrum. 5 (1): 371–86. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0010-2016.
Gavrilov, L A (2003). Pieces of the Puzzle: Aging Research Today and Tomorrow. fightaging.org
Gernand, A. D; Schulze, K. J; Stewart, C. P; West Jr, K. P; and Christian, P (2016). "Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: Health effects and prevention". Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 12 (5): 274–289. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2016.37.
Godswill, A. C. (2017). Industrial waste management: brief survey and advice to cottage, small and medium scale industries in Uganda.
Godswill, A. C. (2019). Proximate composition and functional properties of different grain flour composites for industrial applications. International Journal of Food Sciences, 2(1), 43-64.
Godswill, A. C., & Nwankwere, E. T. (2018). Residual Calcium Content of Sweet Potato Slices after Osmotic Pre-treatment with Salt (NaCl) Solution.
Gordon, N (2009). The cerebral folate deficiency. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 51 (3): 180–182. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03185.x.
Gummin DD, Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Brooks DE, Fraser MO, and Banner W (2017). "2016 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 34th Annual Report". Clinical Toxicology. 55 (10): 1072–1254. doi:10.1080/15563650.2017.1388087.
Igwe Victory Somtochukwu; Omeire Gloria Chinenyenwa; Awuchi Chinaza Godswill; Kwari Mercy Ibrahim; Oledimma Ngozi Uchenna; Amagwula Ikechukwu Otuosorochi (2018a). Ethyl Carbamate in Burukutu Produced from Different Sorghum Varieties Under Varying Storage Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology. American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 5 (4); 82 – 88. ISSN: 2375-3935. http://www.aascit.org/journal/archive2?journalId=907&paperId=6935
Igwe Victory Somtochukwu; Omeire Gloria Chinenyenwa; Awuchi Chinaza Godswill; Kwari Mercy Ibrahim; Oledimma Ngozi Uchenna; Amagwula Ikechukwu Otuosorochi (2018b). Effect of Storage Conditions on the Methanol Content of Burukutu Produced from Different Sorghum Varieties; a Response Surface Methodology Approach. American Journal of Food, Nutrition, and Health, 2018, 3 (3); 42 – 47. http://www.aascit.org/journal/archive2?journalId=829&paperId=6854
Insel, P. M.; Turner, R. Elaine; and Ross, D (2004). Nutrition. Jones and Bartlett Learning. p. 499. ISBN 978-0-7637-0765-1.
Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients (2001). Chromium. IN: The Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Chromium, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, & Chromium. The Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. The National Academy Press. 2001, PP.197-223.
Institute of Medicine (1998). "Niacin". Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 123–149. ISBN 978-0-309-06554-2.
Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board (2020). Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements, published by the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board, currently available online at "DRI Reports".
Jean Weininger (2019). Nutritional disease. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. February 26, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/science/nutritional-disease Access Date: December 13, 2019.
Jenkins DJ, Spence JD, Giovannucci EL, Kim YI, Josse R, Vieth R, et al. (2018). "Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for CVD Prevention and Treatment". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 71 (22): 2570–2584. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2018.04.020.
Katherine Zeratsky (2018). "What is vitamin D toxicity, & should I worry about it since I take supplements?". Mayo Clinic.
Lakhan SE and Vieira KF (2008). "Nutritional therapies for mental disorders". Nutrition Journal. 7: 2. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-2.
Lee Russell McDowell (2000). Vitamins in Animal & Human Nutrition (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-8138-2630-1.
Levente L. Diosady, Venkatesh Mannar MG, and Kiruba K (2019). Improving the lives of millions through new double fortification of salt technology. Maternal & amp; Children Nutrition. 15 (53): e12773. https:doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12773.
Lippard, SJ and Berg JM (1994). Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books. p. 411. ISBN 0-935702-72-5.
Mahler, R. L. (2009). "Essential Plant Micronutrients. Boron in Idaho". University of Idaho. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009.
Maqbool A and Stallings VA (2008). "Update on fat-soluble vitamins in cystic fibrosis". Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 14 (6): 574–581. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283136787.
Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins; Charles William McLaughlin; Susan Johnson; Maryanna Quon Warner; David LaHart; and Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-981176-0. OCLC 32308337.
Mejia, Luis A.; Dary, Omar; and Boukerdenna, Hala (2016). "Global regulatory framework for production & marketing of crops biofortified with vitamins and minerals". Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. Wiley. 1390 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1111/nyas.13275. ISSN 0077-8923.
Mihatsch WA, Braegger C, Bronsky J, Campoy C, Domellöf M, Fewtrell M, Mis NF, Hojsak I, Hulst J, Indrio F, Lapillonne A, Mlgaard C, Embleton N, van Goudoever J (2016). "Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Newborn Infants: A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition". J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 63(1): 123–129. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001232.
Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (2015). Overview of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. Abvailable at http://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-10900000-Kenkoukyoku/Overview.pdf
Moyer VA (2014). "Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: U.S. Preventive services Task Force recommendation statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (8): 558–564. doi:10.7326/M14-0198.
National Institute of Health & Nutrition, Japan (2010). Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010). National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Japan
National Library of Medicine (2016). "Minerals". MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the US National Institutes of Health. 22 December 2016.
National Library of Medicine (2019). "Hypervitaminosis A". MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the US National Institutes of Health. 28 January 2019.
Pemberton J (2006). "Medical experiments carried out in Sheffield on conscientious objectors to military service during the 1939-45 war". International Journal of Epidemiology. 35 (3): 556–558. doi:10.1093/ije/dyl020.
Price, C (2015). Vitamania: Our obsessive quest for nutritional perfection. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1594205040.
Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, and Del Valle BH (2011). Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Calcium & Vitamin D. Washington, D.C: the National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-16394-1.
Scott McCall A; Christopher F. Cummings; Gautam Bhave; Roberto Vanacore; Andrea Page-McCaw; Billy G. Hudson (2014). "Bromine Is Essential Trace Element for the Assembly of Collagen IV Scaffolds in the Tissue Development & Architecture". Cell. 157 (6): 1380–92. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.09.
Talsma, Elise F; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; and Brouwer, Inge D (2017). "Acceptance and adoption of the biofortified crops in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review". Nutrition Reviews. Oxford University Press (OUP). 75 (10): 798–829. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nux037. ISSN 0029-6643.
The Nobel Foundation (2019). "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937". The Nobel Foundation. 2019.
Theodore H Tulchinsky (2010). "Micronutrient Deficiency Conditions: Global Health Issues". BioMed Central (Springer).
Tucker, K. L (2016). "Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging". Annals of New York Academy of Sciences. 1367 (1): 38–49. doi:10.1111/nyas.13062.
UNICEF (1998). The State of the World’s Children 1998: Fact Sheet. http://www.unicef.org/sowc98/fs03.htm
UNICEF (2010). The State of the World’s Children 2010, Statistical Tables, p. 15.
UNICEF (2018)."Vitamin A Deficiency and Supplementation UNICEF Data". 2018.
US Food and Drug Administration (2016). "Federal Register, Food Labeling: the Revision of the Nutrition & Supplement Facts Labels. FR page 33982". US Food and Drug Administration. 27 May 2016.
US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (2016). "Vitamin & mineral supplement fact sheets". The Office of Dietary Supplements, the US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. 2016.
USDA (2007). "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6". USDA. December 2007.
USDA (2016). "Vitamins and minerals". US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library. 2016.
Warren, L. A. and Kauffman, M. E. (2003). "Microbial geoengineers". Science. 299 (5609): 1027–9. doi:10.1126/science.1072076. JSTOR 3833546.
Wendt D (2015). "Packed full of questions: Who benefits from dietary supplements?". Distillations Magazine. 1 (3): 41–45.
Westport, CT (2012). Nutrition in first 1,000 days: the state of the world's mothers 2012. Westport, CT: Save the Children. 2012. p. 16. ISBN 1-888393-24-6.
WHO (2019). "World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019". 2019.
Wilson RD, Wilson RD, Audibert F, Brock JA, Carroll J, Cartier L, et al. (2015). "Pre-conception Folic Acid and Multivitamin Supplementation for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Neural Tube Defects and Other Folic Acid-Sensitive Congenital Anomalies". Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 37 (6): 534–52. doi:10.1016/s1701-2163(15)30230-9.
Young, E.M. (2012). Food and development. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 9781135999414.
Zhao JG, Zeng XT, Wang J, Liu L (2017). "Association between Calcium or Vitamin D Supplementation and Fracture Incidence in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 318 (24): 2466–2482. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.19344.
Zoroddu AM; J. Aashet; G. Crisponi; S. Medici; M. Peana; and V.M. Nurchi (2019). "The essential metals for humans: brief overview". J of Inorganic Biochem. 195: 120–29. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2019.03.13.

Downloads

Published

2020-01-07

How to Cite

Godswill, A. G., Somtochukwu, I. V., Ikechukwu, A. O., & Kate, E. C. (2020). Health Benefits of Micronutrients (Vitamins and Minerals) and their Associated Deficiency Diseases: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Food Sciences, 3(1), 1–32. Retrieved from https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/IJF/article/view/1024