Journal of International Relations https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR <p>The Journal of International Relations (JIR) is a journal that publishes research papers on international relations. It covers topics such as diplomacy, security, conflict resolution, global governance, human rights, and international law. The journal aims to provide a platform for scholars, practitioners, and policy-makers to share their insights and perspectives on the global issues and challenges.</p> <p>The JIR has a peer review process that ensures the quality and originality of the papers. The journal follows the tips and best practices of the International Academic Publishers Association (IAPA). The journal also offers editing and proofreading services to help authors improve their papers. The journal has a fast publication process and a low cost for publication. The journal is indexed by Google Scholar and other databases, enhancing the visibility and impact of the papers. The journal also provides copyright and permissions services to help authors protect their rights and comply with the ethical guidelines. The journal also encourages authors to publish a review paper or a meta-analysis of existing literature on a relevant topic.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> journals@iprjb.org (Journal Admin) support@iprjb.org (Journal Support) Wed, 21 Feb 2024 10:13:42 +0300 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Impact of Climate Change on Global Security and Cooperation in Mexico https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2347 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of the study was to investigate impact of climate change on global security and cooperation in Mexico</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study adopted a desk methodology. A desk study research design is commonly known as secondary data collection. This is basically collecting data from existing resources preferably because of its low cost advantage as compared to a field research. Our current study looked into already published studies and reports as the data was easily accessed through online journals and libraries.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Climate change exacerbates security risks in Mexico through extreme weather events, economic instability, and social tensions. This poses threats to food and water security, increases vulnerability to natural disasters, and fuels conflicts over resources. To address these challenges, Mexico collaborates with international partners, develops adaptation strategies, and invests in renewable energy. Cooperation at national and global levels is crucial to build resilience and mitigate the impacts of climate change on security.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> Realism theory, complex interdependence theory &amp; environmental security theory may be used to anchor future studies impact of climate change on global security and cooperation in Mexico. Governments and international organizations should prioritize climate diplomacy as a cornerstone of foreign policy. Governments should conduct climate-security risk assessments to identify vulnerable regions and potential hotspots.</p> Sofia Ramirez Copyright (c) 2024 Sofia Ramirez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2347 Sun, 25 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Challenges and Opportunities of Digital Diplomacy and Cyberwarfare in Kenya https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2350 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of the study was to investigate challenges and opportunities of digital diplomacy and cyberwarfare</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study adopted a desk methodology. A desk study research design is commonly known as secondary data collection. This is basically collecting data from existing resources preferably because of its low cost advantage as compared to a field research. Our current study looked into already published studies and reports as the data was easily accessed through online journals and libraries.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Climate change exacerbates security risks in Mexico through extreme weather events, economic instability, and social tensions. This poses threats to food and water security, increases vulnerability to natural disasters, and fuels conflicts over resources. To address these challenges, Mexico collaborates with international partners, develops adaptation strategies, and invests in renewable energy. Cooperation at national and global levels is crucial to build resilience and mitigate the impacts of climate change on security.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> Realism theory, constructivism theory &amp; cybersecurity deterrence theory may be used to anchor future studies impact of climate change on global security and cooperation in Mexico. Invest in capacity building for diplomats and foreign service personnel in the field of digital diplomacy and cybersecurity. Implement robust national and international cybersecurity legislation that includes provisions specific to the protection of diplomatic communications and infrastructure.</p> Collins Maina Copyright (c) 2024 Collins Maina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2350 Sun, 25 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Role of Multilateral Institutions in Managing Regional Conflicts and Crises in Democratic Republic of Congo https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2348 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of the study was to investigate role of multilateral institutions in managing regional conflicts and crises in Democratic Republic of Congo</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study adopted a desk methodology. A desk study research design is commonly known as secondary data collection. This is basically collecting data from existing resources preferably because of its low cost advantage as compared to a field research. Our current study looked into already published studies and reports as the data was easily accessed through online journals and libraries.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Multilateral institutions play a crucial role in managing regional conflicts and crises by employing a range of diplomatic, humanitarian, peacekeeping, and development interventions. While facing various challenges, their continued engagement and collaboration remain essential for promoting peace, stability, and sustainable development in conflict-affected regions worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> Realism theory, constructivism theory &amp; liberal institutionalism theory may be used to anchor future studies on the role of multilateral institutions in managing regional conflicts and crises in Democratic Republic of Congo. Multilateral institutions offer a neutral platform for diplomatic engagement. Multilateral institutions influence policy development by convening member states and experts to craft effective conflict management strategies.</p> Amina Lumumba Copyright (c) 2024 Amina Lumumba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2348 Sun, 25 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Promoting Kenya’s National Interests through Strategic Communication: Challenges and Opportunities https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2323 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Throughout history, nations have sought to protect, promote and advance their national interests. Countries use various elements and instruments of national power in pursuit of those national interest. These includes military, diplomatic, economic and information. Like other nations, Kenya employs these instruments in various ways. Strategic communications, forms a key element of the information aspect of national power. Despite the importance of strategic communications in the pursuit of national interests, this paradigm has not been fully acknowledged nor been substantially leveraged on. This study therefore had the key objectives of determining the role of strategic communications in selected case studies in promotion of national interests, examining the role of strategic communications in promoting Kenya’s national interests and identifying opportunities and challenges of strategic communications in promoting national interests.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study adopted a pragmatic research methodology. Both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were adopted. The qualitative research offered the usual narrative information collected through interviews. While information acquired through questionnaires and interviews offered quantitative data necessary data on the role of strategic communication in promoting Kenya’s national interests. Being a cross-sectional research study, the researcher used interviews for gathering data, and questionnaires for data collection. This study used purposeful sampling to &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;choose 86 respondents in ‘Job Group’ ‘P’ and above from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Internal Security and National Administration and the Ministry of Information Communication Technology and Digital Economy based in Nairobi. The quantitative data gathered from the questionnaires was coded, edited, organized, and analyzed with the assistance frequency tables, whereas the qualitative data obtained from the open-ended questions of the interviews is thematically analyzed in accordance with the research objectives.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings reveal that the Government of Kenya has attempted to institutionalize strategic communications in various Ministries, Departments, and Agencies (MDAs). This study further shows that if well capacitated, coordinated and provided with requisite leadership, these institutions provide opportunities that would be useful in the synchronization of the instruments of national power. The study identified various opportunities as well as challenges encountered in the utilization of strategic communications in promoting Kenya’s national interests.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> This study was informed by Institutional and Realism theories. The Institutional theory has been identified as one of the most prominent theoretical perceptions of organizational and management research while Realism is considered a longstanding theory, critical in understanding social phenomena from different perspectives. The study recommended the entrenchment strategic communications in the National Security Council (NSC) by setting up an office of strategic communications and coordination under the NSC. Moreover, there is need to ensure implementation of the National Communication Policy and Strategy while ensuring harmonization through a whole government approach that can lead to policy coherence.</p> William Njoroge Mugo Copyright (c) 2024 William Njoroge Mugo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2323 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Effects of Migration and Displacement on Human Rights and Development in Sub-Saharan African https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2349 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of the study was to investigate effects of migration and displacement on human rights and development</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study adopted a desk methodology. A desk study research design is commonly known as secondary data collection. This is basically collecting data from existing resources preferably because of its low cost advantage as compared to a field research. Our current study looked into already published studies and reports as the data was easily accessed through online journals and libraries.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Migration and displacement profoundly affect human rights and development, highlighting the urgent need for coordinated action at local, national, and international levels to ensure the protection and well-being of all individuals affected by these processes.</p> <p><strong>Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy:</strong> Human rights-based approach (HRBA), structural violence theory &amp; transnationalism theory may be used to anchor future studies effects of migration and displacement on human rights and development. Implement robust human rights monitoring mechanisms in migration and displacement contexts, ensuring that individuals' rights are safeguarded throughout their journey. Develop and enforce policies that explicitly incorporate a human rights-based approach to migration and displacement. States should ratify and implement relevant international conventions, ensuring the rights of migrants and displaced persons are respected.</p> Peterson Mwanzia Copyright (c) 2024 Peterson Mwanzia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.iprjb.org/journals/index.php/JIR/article/view/2349 Sun, 25 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300